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Which of the following is the MOST effective type of antivirus software?


Active monitors

integrity checkers


Integrity checkers compute a binary number on a known virus-free program that is then stored in a
database file. This number is called a cyclical redundancy check (CRC). When that program is

called to execute, the checker computes the CRC on the program about to be executed and
compares it to the number in the database. A match means no infection; a mismatch means that a
change in the program has occurred. A change in the program could mean a virus. Scanners look
for sequences of bits called signatures that are typical of virus programs. They examine memory,
disk boot sectors, executables and command files for bit patterns that match a known virus.
Therefore, scanners need to be updated periodically to remain effective. Active monitors interpret
DOS and ROM basic input-output system (BIOS) calls, looking for virus-like actions. Active
monitors can be misleading, because they cannot distinguish between a user request and a
program or virus request. As a result, users are asked to confirm actions like formatting a disk or
deleting a file or set of files. Vaccines are known to be good antivirus software. However, they also
need to be updated periodically to remain effective.

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